Beginning from this view, the Utilitarians created systems of moral behavior as standards for how an individual ought to act in society. Additionally, critics have suggested the significant limitations of an ethical system that attempts to reduce human behavior and action to simple rational calculations of pleasure versus pain, but at the same time they acknowledge its considerable impact on nineteenth- and twentieth-century normative ethics.
It is centred around the concept of happiness, and seeks to promote it. Furthermore, Bentham did not distinguish between different forms of pleasure. He posited that someone who has experienced both forms of pleasure would naturally feel inclined to choose the higher pleasures.
Bentham developed this principle throughout a number of writings, including his most significant work of moral Utilitarianism argumentative essay, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation The sophisticated system proposed by Bentham and later expanded by John Stuart Mill and others regards not only the end product of happiness, or utility, in actions, but also considers the motives of actions and the extent to which happiness can be created not only for the individual, but also for the members of society as a whole.
Naturally, it follows from this that he also felt that we should treat unhappiness as something consisting of pain. To him, anything that gave rise to happiness — be it drugs or reading — was fundamentally good.
According to Mill, these latter pleasures are of a greater quality, and should therefore be considered more important.
I am focusing here on the nature of utilitarianism and am not considering its weaknesses. Both Bentham and Mill forwarded a belief in the intrinsic nature of value; thus good or the lack thereof could be regarded as inherent in an act or thing—a concept that allowed for the mathematical calculation of utility.
In this work, Bentham also sought to specifically record the sources of pleasure and pain, as well as to create a scale upon which the relative effects of individual acts in producing happiness or misery could be examined. This is known as the greatest happiness principle.
The idea here is that all people seek happiness, and that it is the ultimate goal of all human beings to be happy. Commentators on the writings of both men have continued the process of analyzing and codifying their work in order to more clearly define the doctrine.
This view on happiness has led his particular brand of utilitarianism to be seen as a hedonistic theory. The basic principle of Utilitarianism involves a calculus of happiness, in which actions are deemed to be good if they tend to produce happiness in the form of pleasure and evil if they tend to promote pain.
As such, the philosophy is said to derive from the classical concept of hedonism, which values the pursuit of pleasure and Utilitarianism argumentative essay of pain. Imagine that the neighbour is desperate to find someone to exercise his canine companion, while your friends are fully capable of enjoying themselves without you.
Notable among the Utilitarians to follow Bentham, the philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill made considerable contributions to Utilitarian philosophy, beginning with his succinct apologia for the doctrine in Utilitarianism His ideas here are, really, quite simple.
Numerous other individuals contributed to the Utilitarian movement in the nineteenth century, including the British philosophers John Austin and James Mill J.
In theory and in practice, Utilitarianism has continued to be influential, with the work of Bentham and Mill proving to be of the greatest importance and interest. An understanding of this topic could prove useful to IB philosophy students taking ethics as one of their chosen options.
Another, similar idea is that a person should always strive, if incapable of producing happiness, to reduce unhappiness. Utilitarianism is a moral theory generally considered to have been founded by Jeremy Bentham, a 19th century English philosopher and social reformer.
Therefore, according to classical utilitarianism, when a person wishes to act in an ethically sound manner he or she should strive to bring about the greatest possible amount of happiness for the greatest possible amount of people.
While Bentham modified this concept over time, critics acknowledge that its essence remains intact throughout his work. This is a fairly straightforward exploration of the most common forms of utilitarianism.
These will be looked at in a separate post.Essay on Utilitarianism Words | 6 Pages Utilitarianism There are many essays, papers and books written on the concept of right and wrong. Research Paper on Utilitarianism and Bioethics In bioethics the influence of utilitarianism as an applied ethical theory is widely felt, both positively and negatively.
On almost all substantive issues in the area, utilitarianism anchors one of the contending positions. The essay displays Mill's emphasis on rational calculation as the means by which human beings strive toward personal happiness. Mill's remaining philosophical writings elucidate his Utilitarianism, especially in regard to a number of related practical issues, including women's suffrage, and legislative and educational reform.
Hapiness and Utilitarianism in Mill´s Essay - In Mill’s essay on utilitarianism, Mill observes that a great amount of people misunderstand utilitarianism by having utility and pleasure together in the same idea and concept.
In fact, Mill says utility is described as a pleasure and an absence of pain. Utilitarianism Essay Utilitarianism Essay Fields, Vickie Grand Canyon University: PHI November 9, Utilitarianism Essay Utilitarianism is a theory in ethics regarding actions that maximize utility.
Utilitarianism is human- centered and has a foundation of morality. One could say this theory holds to happiness as the principle, at least that is what John Mill proposes. Moreover, it is not a coincidence that wrong actions harm people and right action help people.
Indeed, utilitarianism claimed that the reason that right actions are right is that they help people, and the reason that wrong actions are wrong is because they harm people. .Download