The sample was also relatively homogeneous with mostly Caucasian middle class students who lived in a relatively rural community. Care should be taken that the findings are summarized in the context of the published literature and not simply a reiteration of the results section.
The discussion of a research paper the discussion with an opening paragraph summarizing the purpose and main approach of the study: This occurs when the findings obtained from outside sources are not cited at all or inconsistently referenced.
Also try to integrate the findings into the results of other research studies. However, the teachers at Tonganoxie Elementary School commented that students from a range of ability levels participated in the study.
Information about the study was sent home with all of the students at Tonganoxie Elementary School. This study found that Nigerian teachers have a mix of beliefs regarding early literacy development, some accurate beliefs and other inaccurate beliefs.
All explanations must be supported by the results of the data analysis. Therefore, the most beneficial recommendations will be ones that educators themselves can implement.
The teachers sampled in this study were accurate in their agreement about the importance of oral language. Draw conclusions and make recommendations only directly related to the purpose and results of the study.
However, the discussion should not be an in-depth review of the literature, but rather a discussion of the findings as they relate to published studies.
First, students were not randomly selected from a larger population to participate in the study. Accurate conclusions are drawn. The conclusions do not state the study significance and implications OR overstate the significance of the findings An effective conclusion is one of the most important aspects of the entire manuscript as this is the final impression that the reader has after reading the study.
Briefly summarize the overall conclusion of the data analysis based on the purpose of the study. However, better instructional materials and adequate pay are rarely even distantly related to the topic of the paper!
While the main findings should be summarized in the discussion, the results including statistics and main figures should be presented only in the results section.
Future studies are required to verify our results in humans. It is important that everything in this last section is based off of the results of the data analysis.
First, researchers should identify the types of malpractices that are most frequent amongst students. A paper can only make valid conclusions and recommendations on those variables that the study has empirical data to support. Additional research needs to be conducted to determine how well early childhood education teachers use instructional strategies that promote oral language in the classroom.
However, learning how to read is a difficult endeavor that requires competent instructors. Exposing the limitations of the study creates potential avenues of future work. How might the target population be limited? Limitations All studies have limitations in terms of the sample, measurement or manipulation of key variables, and procedure for data collection.
Provide 1 to 2 sentences summarizing the main findings of the study. However, every single research study ever conducted in the history of this world was limited by money, resources, and time. Were there any problems with the treatment? The study limitations are not discussed One of the most frequently neglected aspects of a discussion is the mention of the study limitations.
This study provided evidence that primary school teachers in Nigeria need additional professional development to improve their beliefs about literacy development so they can be more effective literacy instructors.
Citation quality Another common error is the cited literature throughout the discussion. No statistics need to be repeated from the results, nor does the discussion need to refer to table numbers. When teachers spend the time necessary for teaching study skills, then students will not be uncertain about ethical study practices and will be more prepared for their exams.
The information presented is specific. Each section is described separately below. I frequently read that the study was limited by time, money, or other resources. An example paragraph from a Discussion section is given below: Below is a sample recommendation. If that topic was not precisely assessed by the questionnaire, then you cannot draw a conclusion or make a recommendation about that topic.
The parents then had to sign and return an informed consent document. First, restate the overall purpose of the study.
However, if the data analysis found that the new teaching program does not improve mathematical exam scores, then the researcher cannot conclude that the new teaching program should be implemented, because the program was found to be ineffective in improving exam scores.Discussion is one of the hardest section in research paper or thesis.
It needs experience, learning and practice. It is not a way to restate your results. In this critical part of the research paper, you start the process of explaining any links and correlations apparent in your data.
If you left few interesting leads and open questions in the results section, the discussion is simply a matter of.
Recommendations for further research can be included in either the discussion or conclusion of your paper, but do not repeat your recommendations in the both sections. Think about the overall narrative flow of your paper to.
Explaining the meaning of the results to the reader is the purpose of the discussion section of a research paper. There are elements of the discussion that should be included and other things that should be avoided. Always write the discussion for the reader; remember that the focus should be to help the How to Write an Effective Discussion.
The second to last step in conducting a research study is to interpret the findings in the Discussion section, draw conclusions, and make recommendations. A paper can only make valid conclusions and recommendations on those variables that the study has empirical data to support.
ScienceDocs Editor Dr. Horvath continues her series on writing a research paper: 5 Common Mistakes to Avoid when Writing a Discussion.Download