Since I have converted from egoism, I can no longer reject making the sacrifice or passing up the gain on the ground that it will not pay.
The duties to others found in standard moral theories are not conditional in this way. Since these variants are uncommon, and the arguments for and against them are largely the same as those concerning the standard version, we set them aside.
This is no more odd than claiming that my opponent in a game would be wise to adopt a particular strategy, while desiring that he not do so. The argument has other problems.
Say the cost to me of saving a drowning person is getting my shirtsleeve wet. A further worry is that it is not clear that having the belief best increases reproductive fitness.
However, evidence for this dependence claim has not been forthcoming. Against the punishment by others hypothesis, Batson found that letting high-empathy subjects believe that their behaviour would be secret did not reduce helping.
The proposal that preferences establish non-arbitrary distinctions supports the instrumental theory better than rational egoism. But this would only defend rational egoism against one attack.
If so, I do have reason to care specially about all of the future selves I am continuous with, and do not have this reason to care specially about others with whom I am not continuous. But ethical egoism can be seen as making categorical ought-claims.
After all, the soldier did what he most wanted to do, and so must have been pursuing his perceived self-interest. It is also hard to think of a plausible argument which has kin altruism as a premiss and rational egoism as the conclusion, so doubts about kin altruism do not seem to undercut arguments for rational egoism.
After all, few if any ethical egoists think of egoism as giving the correct content of morality, while also thinking that the rational thing to do is determined by some non-egoist consideration. There are a number of standard arguments against it. Philosopher Ayn Rand is quoted as writing that, "[i]f a man accepts the ethics of altruism, his first concern is not how to live his life but how to sacrifice it.
Second, if psychological egoism is false, I might lack a preference for my own welfare. Parfit gives two main arguments against rational egoism.
The present-aim theory does not. However, most notable anarchists in history have been less radical, retaining altruism and a sense of the importance of the individual that is appreciable but does not go as far as egoism. Indeed, when examining the empirical evidence, two sorts of approach have been used to argue against psychological egoism.
Ethical egoists such as Rand who readily acknowledge the conditional value of others to an individual, and who readily endorse empathy for others, have argued the exact reverse from Rachels, that it is altruism which discriminates: Second, Elliot Sober and David Wilson argue that evolutionary theory supports altruism.
It violates practicality just as any other moral theory does.An example of ethical egoism would be a person who owes money to a friend and decides to pay the friend back not because that person owes money, but because it is in his best interest to pay his friend back so that he does not lose his friend.
Another example of ethical egoism would be a person who. Ethical Egoism: A section of the entry "Egoism" discussing arguments for and against by Robert Shaver published in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ethical Egoism: A section of the entry "Egoism' from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Alexander Moseley emphasizing conflict resolution.
Inc Reprinted by permission of the publisher 1 NORMATIVE ETHICAL THEORIES While metaethics is essential an analysis of the concept of egoism in ethics to ethics as a.
Ethical Egoism Essay Examples. An Introduction and an Analysis of Ethical Egoism in Pursuit of Self-Interest. 2, words. 5 pages. An Analysis of the Concept of Egoism in Ethics.
1, words. 4 pages. The Features of Psychological Egoism. words. 2 pages. A Look at the Two Different Heads to Egoism. Ethical egoism also differs from rational egoism, which holds that it is rational to act in one's self-interest. Ethical egoism holds, therefore, that actions whose consequences will benefit the doer can be considered ethical in this sense.
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